ASTM D2983 - Low-Temperature Viscosity of Automatic Transmission Fluids, Hydraulic Fluids, and Lubricants using a Rotational Viscometer
Significance and Use
5.1 The low-temperature, low-shear-rate viscosity of automatic transmission fluids, gear oils, torque and tractor fluids, and industrial and automotive hydraulic oils (see Appendix X4) are of considerable importance to the proper operation of many mechanical devices. Measurement of the viscometric properties of these oils and fluids at low temperatures is often used to specify their acceptance for service. This test method is used in a number of specifications.
5.2 Initially this test method was developed to determine whether an automatic transmission fluid (ATF) would meet OEM low temperature performance criterion originally defined using a particular model viscometer.6 The viscosity range covered in the original ATF performance correlation studies was from less than 1000 mPa·s to more than 60 000 mPa·s. The success of the ATF correlation and the development of this test method has over time been applied to other fluids and lubricants such as gear oils, hydraulic fluids, and so forth.
5.3 Procedures A, B, C, and D of this test method describe how to measure apparent viscosity directly without the errors associated with earlier techniques using extrapolation of experimental viscometric data obtained at higher temperatures.
NOTE 1: Low temperature viscosity values obtained by either interpolation or extrapolation of oils may be subject to errors caused by gelation and other forms of non-Newtonian response to spindle speed and torque.
1.1 This test method covers the use of rotational viscometers with an appropriate torque range and specific spindle for the determination of the low-shear-rate viscosity of automatic transmission fluids, gear oils, hydraulic fluids, and some lubricants. This test method covers the viscosity range of 300 mPa·s to 900 000 mPa·s
1.2 This test method was previously titled “Low-Temperature Viscosity of Lubricants Measured by Brookfield Viscometer.” In the lubricant industry, D2983 test results have often been referred to as “Brookfield2 Viscosity” which implies a viscosity determined by this method.
1.3 This test method contains four procedures: Procedure A is used when only an air bath is used to cool samples in preparation for viscosity measurement. Procedure B is used when a mechanically refrigerated programmable liquid bath is used to cool samples in preparation for viscosity measurement. Procedure C is used when a mechanically refrigerated constant temperature liquid bath is used to cool samples by means of a simulated air cell (SimAir)3 Cell in preparation for viscosity measurement. Procedure D automates the determination of low temperature, low-shear-rate viscosity by utilizing a thermoelectrically heated and cooled temperature-controlled sample chamber along with a programmable rotational viscometer.
1.4 There are multiple precision studies for this test method.
1.4.1 The viscosity data used for the precision studies for Procedures A, B, and C covered a range from 300 mPa·s to 170 000 mPa·s at test temperatures of –12 °C, –26 °C, and –40 °C. Appendix X5 includes precision data for –55 °C test temperature and includes samples with viscosities greater 500 000 mPa·s.
1.4.2 The viscosity data used for Procedure D precision study was from 6400 mPa·s to 256 000 mPa·s at test temperatures of –26 °C and –40 °C.
1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.5.1 The test method uses the SI unit, milliPascal-second (mPa·s), as the unit of viscosity. (1 cP = 1 mPa·s).
1.6 WARNING—Mercury has been designated by many regulatory agencies as a hazardous substance that can cause serious medical issues. Mercury, or its vapor, has been demonstrated to be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Use Caution when handling mercury and mercury-containing products. See the applicable product Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for additional information. The potential exists that selling mercury or mercury-containing products, or both, is prohibited by local or national law. Users must determine legality of sales in their location.Extracted, with permission, from ASTM D2983-21 -Low-Temperature Viscosity of Automatic Transmission Fluids, Hydraulic Fluids, and Lubricants using a Rotational Viscometer, copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428. A copy of the complete standard may be purchased from ASTM International, astm.org