ASTM D6443 - Calcium, Chlorine, Copper, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Zinc in Unused Lubricating Oils and Additives by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
Signiﬁcance and Use
4.1 Lubricating oils can be formulated with additives, which can act as detergents, anti-oxidants, anti-wear agents, and so forth. Some additives can contain one or more of calcium, copper, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc. This test method can be used to determine if the oils, additives, and additive packages meet speciﬁcation with respect to content of these elements.
4.2 Several additive elements and their compounds are added to the lubricating oils to give beneﬁcial performance (Table 3).
4.3 This test method can also be used to determine if lubricating oils, additives, and additive packages meet speciﬁcation with respect to chlorine concentration. In this context, speciﬁcation can refer to contamination.
4.4 This test method is not intended for use on samples that contain some component that signiﬁcantly interferes with the analysis of the elements speciﬁed in the scope.
4.5 This test method can complement other test methods for lube oils and additives, including Test Methods D4628, D4927, D4951, and D5185.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of calcium, chlorine, copper, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc in unused lubricating oils, additives, and additive packages by wavelength dispersive X-ray ﬂuorescence spectrometry. Matrix effects are handled with mathematical corrections.
1.2 For each element, the upper limit of the concentration range covered by this test method is deﬁned by the highest concentration listed in Table 1. Samples containing higher concentrations can be analyzed following dilution.
1.3 For each element, the lower limit of the concentration range covered by this test method can be estimated by the limit of detection (LOD)2 (see also 40 CFR 136 Appendix B) or limit of quantiﬁcation (LOQ),2 both of which can be estimated
from Sr, the repeatability standard deviation. LOD and LOQ values, determined from results obtained in the interlaboratory study on precision, are listed in Table 2.
1.3.1 LOD and LOQ are not intrinsic constants of this test method. LOD and LOQ depend upon the precision attainable by a laboratory when using this test method.
1.4 This test method uses regression software to determine calibration parameters, which can include inﬂuence coefficients (that is, interelement effect coefficients) (Guide E1361), herein referenced as alphas. Alphas can also be determined from theory using relevant software.
1.5 Setup of this test method is intended for persons trained in the practice of X-ray spectrometry. Following setup, this test method can be used routinely.
Extracted, with permission, from ASTM D6443-14 - Calcium, Chlorine, Copper, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Zinc in Unused Lubricating Oils and Additives by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428. A copy of the complete standard may be purchased from ASTM International, astm.org