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ASTM D924 - Dissipation Factor and Relative Permittivity of Electrical Insulating Liquids

Significance and Use

4.1 Dissipation Factor (or Power Factor)—This is a measure of the dielectric losses in an electrical insulating liquid when used in an alternating electric field and of the energy dissipated as heat. A low dissipation factor or power factor indicates low ac dielectric losses. Dissipation factor or power factor may be useful as a means of quality control, and as an indication of changes in quality resulting from contamination and deterioration in service or as a result of handling.

4.1.1 The loss characteristic is commonly measured in terms of dissipation factor (tangent of the loss angle) or of power factor (sine of the loss angle) and may be expressed as a decimal value or as a percentage. For decimal values up to 0.05, dissipation factor and power factor values are equal to each other within about one part in one thousand. In general, since the dissipation factor or power factor of insulating oils in good condition have decimal values below 0.005, the two measurements (terms) may be considered interchangeable.

4.1.2 The exact relationship between dissipation factor (D) and power factor (PF ) is given by the following equations:

Equation D0924-15_1

The reported value of D or PF may be expressed as a decimal value or as a percentage. For example:

Equation D0924-15_2

4.2 Relative Permittivity (Dielectric Constant)—Insulating liquids are used in general either to insulate components of an electrical network from each other and from ground, alone or in combination with solid insulating materials, or to function as the dielectric of a capacitor. For the first use, a low value of relative permittivity is often desirable in order to have the capacitance be as small as possible, consistent with acceptable chemical and heat transfer properties. However, an intermediate value of relative permittivity may sometimes be advantageous in achieving a better voltage distribution of ac electric fields between the liquid and solid insulating materials with which the liquid may be in series. When used as the dielectric in a capacitor, it is desirable to have a higher value of relative permittivity so the physical size of the capacitor may be as small as possible.

4.3 Theory relating to dielectric measurement techniques and to sources of dielectric loss is given in Test Methods D150.

1. Scope

1.1 This test method describes testing of new electrical insulating liquids as well as liquids in service or subsequent to service in cables, transformers, oil circuit breakers, and other electrical apparatus.

1.2 This test method provides a procedure for making referee tests at a commercial frequency of between 45 and 65 Hz.

1.3 Where it is desired to make routine determinations requiring less accuracy, certain modifications to this test method are permitted as described in Sections 16 to 24.

1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

Extracted, with permission, from ASTM D924-15 - Dissipation Factor and Relative Permittivity of Electrical Insulating Liquids, copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428. A copy of the complete standard may be purchased from ASTM International, astm.org