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ASTM D2709 - Water and Sediment in Middle Distillate Fuels by Centrifuge

Significance and Use

5.1 This test method is used as an indication of free water and sediment suspended as haze, cloudiness, or droplets in middle distillate fuels such as Grades No. 1 and 2 fuel oil (Specification D396), Grades No. 1-D and 2-D diesel fuel (Specification D975), and Grades No. 0-GT, 1-GT, and 2-GT gas turbine fuels (Specification D2880), similar fuels and blendstocks used to make these fuels.

5.2 Appreciable amounts of free water and sediment in a fuel oil tend to cause fouling of fuel-handling facilities and to give trouble in the fuel system of a burner or engine. An accumulation of sediment in storage tanks and on filter screens can obstruct the flow of oil from the tank to the combustor. Free water in middle distillate fuels can cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, and if detergent is present, the water can cause emulsions or a hazy appearance. Free water can support microbiological growth at fuel-water interfaces in fuel systems.

(A) Measured between tips of opposite tubes when in rotating position.

(B) “r/min” is the correct SI symbol for the former term “rpm.”


1. Scope

1.1 This test method covers the determination of the volume of free water and sediment (as a percentage of the sample) that is suspended in the bulk fuel in middle distillate fuels with viscosities in the range of 1.0 mm2/s to 4.1 mm2/s at 40 °C (1.0 cSt to 4.1 cSt at 104 °F) and densities in the range of 770 kg/m3 to 900 kg/m3 at 15 °C.

NOTE 1: Fuels corresponding to Specification D396 Grades No. 1 and 2, D975 Grades No. 1-D and 2-D, Specification D2880 Grades No. 0-GT, 1-GT and 2-GT, and Specification D3699 Grades No. 1-K and 2-K and similar middle distillate fuels and blendstocks will usually fall in this viscosity and density range. Test Method D1796 is intended for higher viscosity fuel oils.

1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard.

1.2.1 Exception—The non-SI values are for information only.

Extracted, with permission, from ASTM D2709-16 - Water and Sediment in Middle Distillate Fuels by Centrifuge, copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428. A copy of the complete standard may be purchased from ASTM International, astm.org