For your information and convenience, Savant Labs has described some of our most frequently requested test methods. For a full list of test methods click here. The methods listed on this page are organized by category:
Viscosity / Shear Stability
Rotational low-shear measurement of viscosity at low temperatures. Test method can be applied to a wide viscosity range of lubricants to ensure that viscosity increase due to low temperature is within limits for the applications or specifications of interest.
Low temperature, high shear stress viscosity using the Cold Cranking Simulator Viscometer. Test predicts the comparative ability of an oil to give satisfactory low-temperature engine cranking speed. Reported in cP.
CCS viscosity values over a low-temperature range from -10°C to -35°. Indicates affects of low temperatures on startability over full range of scan. Reported in cP in the database and represented as a line graph in the IOM Primary Report.
|Cone & Plate Viscosity||
Viscosity measurement using a Cone & Plate Viscometer, useful for higher viscosity samples and can be paired with high shear techniques to provide multi-shear rate viscosity curves.
|Fuel Injector Shear Stability Test||
Test evaluates the percent viscosity loss for polymer-containing fluids resulting from polymer degradation in the high shear nozzle device. D5275 combined with HTHS viscosity is a required test in the General Electric B82 locomotive specification. Reported in cSt. KV at 100C before and after shear and in % loss in viscosity.
|Gelation Index and Gelation Index Temperature||
Gives Gelation Index and Gelation Index Termperature using the Scanning Brookfield Technique. Determines the tendency of an oil to cause problems by forming a gelated structure at temperatures below 0°C (32°F). ISO 17025 Accredited.
|High Temp. High Shear HTHS Viscosity at 100°C||
High temperature high shear rate viscosity using the Tapered Bearing Simulator (TBS) Viscometer determines the dynamic viscosity of engine oil at 100°C and one million reciprocal seconds. Simulates the ability of an oil to meet the hydrodynamic needs of the engine in high shear areas. Reported in cP. ISO 17025 Accredited.
|High Temp. High Shear HTHS Viscosity at 150°C||
High temperature high shear rate viscosity using the Tapered Bearing Simulator (TBS) Viscometer determines the dynamic viscosity of engine oil at 150°C and one million reciprocal seconds. Simulates the ability of an oil to meet the hydrodynamic needs of the engine in high shear areas. Reported in cP. ISO 17025 Accredited.
|High Temp. High Shear Viscosity at Other Temperatures or Other Shear-Rates||
High temperature high shear rate viscosity using the Tapered Bearing Simulator (TBS) Viscometer determines the dynamic viscosity of engine oil can be tested from 40°C to 200oC and a wide range of shear rates. Simulates the ability of an oil to meet the hydrodynamic needs several areas of the engine and map a lubricant’s viscosity response to temperature and shear. Reported in cP.
|ASTM D4683 Modified|
|High Temp. Low Shear Viscosity||
High temperature low shear viscosity using the Tannas Basic Rotary (TBR) Viscometer. Determines the dynamic viscosity of oil at a selected temperature and two hundred reciprocal seconds. Helps to characterize the Viscosity Index improver used in a given engine oil or used to obtain reliable viscosity data at high temperatures. Reported in cP.
Kinematic Viscosity at 40°C and 100°C. Reported in cSt. ISO 17025 Accredited.
Kinematic Viscosity at a range of temperatures from -40oC to 150oC. Reported in cSt. ISO 17025 Accredited.
|KRL Shear Stability||
Tests a lubricating oil using a tapered roller bearing to determine lubricant shear stability Reported in cSt. KV at 100oC before and after shear and % loss in viscosity.
|CEC L-45-99 Mod. & ASTM D445|
|Kurt Orbahn Shear Stability||
Test evaluates the shear stability of polymer-containing fluids. The test method measures the percent viscosity loss at 100oC when evaluated by the European diesel injector apparatus. ASTM D6278 is typically run at 30 passes, but can be customized. ASTM D7109 requires data to be collected at 30 and 90 passes. Reported in cSt. KV at 100oC before and after shear and % loss in viscosity. Both methods are ISO 17025 Accredited.
|ASTM D6278 or D7109|
|MRV / TP-1||
Low temperature low shear viscosity using the Mini-Rotary Viscometer with a specified temperature profile. Predicts the ability of oil to permit satisfactory flow to the engine oil pump at the SAE specified temperature. Reported in cP. ISO 17025 Accredited.
An index of the lowest temperature at which a petroleum product will still pour. Reported in oC, in increments of 3oC.
|Scanning Brookfield Viscosity (Gelation Index)||
Low temperature low shear viscosity using the Scanning Brookfield Technique (SBT). Predicts the ability of oil to permit satisfactory flow to the engine oil pump screen and to the pump over a range of cold temperatures from 0°C to -40°C. Reported in °C and cP. Includes report of the Gelation Index. ISO 17025 Accredited.
Evaluation of the shear stability of an oil containing polymer in terms
of the permanent loss in viscosity that results from irradiating a sample of
the oil or hydraulic fluid in a sonic oscillator. Reported in cSt. KV at 40oC
before and after irradiation and % loss in viscosity.
|ASTM D2603 or D5621|
An empirical measure of the viscosity-temperature relationship. Used to determine the characteristics of base oils and the effects of VI Improvers. The value is determined from Kinematic Viscosity measurements at 40° and 100°C. ISO 17025 Accredited.
|Viscosity Loss Profile (VLP)||
Uses the HTHS and HTLS viscosity values at 100°C and 150° before and after permanently shearing the oil using the Kurt Orbahn to determine the five forms of Temporary and Permanent Viscosity Losses. Values characterize the oil’s shear stability and are related to the molecular weight distribution of the VI Improver used in formulating and blending the engine oil. Reported graphically and in percent loss values.
|ASTM D4683, ASTM D6616, SAVLAB TBR|
Oxidation / Corrosion
|Ball Rust Test||
Measures the ability of an engine oil to protect valve train components against rusting or corrosion under low temperature, short-trip service. Required as part of the API SN specification.
|Copper Strip Corrosion||
The copper strip corrosion test is designed to assess the relative degree of corrosivity of a petroleum product. Acidic corrosion results in wear, which can lead to component failure. The range is 1A (the best) and 4 (the worst), 1B is typical.
|FTIR, Oxidation of an In-Service Fluid||
This test method uses Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry
for monitoring build-up of oxidation products in in-service petroleum and
hydrocarbon based lubricants as a result of normal machinery operation. ISO
|High Temperature Corrosion Bench Test (HTCBT)||
Tests diesel engine lubricants to determine their tendency to corrode
various metals, specifically alloys of lead and copper commonly used in cam
followers and bearings. This test is required in the API CK/FA-4 specification.
This test attempts to determine the expected turbine oil life by subjecting the test oil to oxidative stress using oxygen, high temperatures, water and metal catalysts, all of which increase sludge and acid formation. Test is complete when the sample acid number reaches 2.0 but has also been configured based on TAN below a minimum value after a certain time duration such as 2000 hours.
|Oxidation Stability, Bio-Diesel Fuel||
Test determines of the oxidation stability of fuels for diesel engines,
by means of measuring the induction period of the fuel up to 48 h. The method
is applicable to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) intended for the use as pure
biofuel or as a blending component for diesel fuels, and to blends of FAME with
diesel fuel containing 2 % (V/V) of FAME at minimum.
|Oxidation Stability, Bio-Diesel Fuel Blends||
Rancimat method for the determination of the oxidation stability of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) at 110°C.
|Oxidation Stability, Grease||
This test determines resistance of lubricating greases to oxidation when
they are stored in an oxygen atmosphere in a sealed system at an elevated
temperature. The standard test reports % pressure loss after 100 hours.
|Rotating Pressure Vessel Oxidation Test (RPVOT)||
Utilizes an oxygen-pressured vessel to evaluate the oxidation stability
of new and in-service turbine oils in the presence of water and a copper
catalyst coil at 150°C. Reported in minutes to a 25.4 psi pressure drop. Test
can also be run to a hard break for research purposes. Also formerly known as
D665 is available in 4 hour and 24 hour versions and can be run with distilled water and simulated seawater. Evaluates an inhibited mineral oil’s ability to aid in prevention of rust of ferrous parts if mixed with water.
|Sludging & Corrosion Tendency||
This test evaluates the tendency of inhibited mineral oil based steam turbine lubricants and mineral oil based anti-wear hydraulic oils to corrode copper catalyst metal and to form sludge during oxidation in the presence of oxygen, water, and copper and iron metals.
Thermo-Oxidation Engine Oil Simulation Test, 33C method. Measures the deposit-forming tendencies of an engine oil in the turbocharger at very high temperatures. Reported in milligrams of deposit.
Thermo-Oxidation Engine Oil Simulation Test, MHT method. Measures the deposit-forming tendencies of an oil at piston ring-pack operating temperatures. Reported in milligrams of deposit.
Oxidation resistance by using the Thin Film Oxygen Uptake Test. Measures the length of time an oil withstands oxidation during exposure to oxygen at 160°C. Reported in minutes of resistance until the oxygen pressure falls sharply indicating the anti-oxidant has been overwhelmed or until the oil surpasses 500 minutes without overwhelming the anti-oxidant.
Foaming / Emulsion / Volatility / Water Tolerance
|E85 Emulsion Retention||
Bio-fuels like E85 have a greater tendency to form water contamination
during engine operation which can negatively affect the lubrication and
detergency of the engine oil. The test evaluates the ability of an engine oil,
contaminated with a specified amount of water and simulated E85 fuel, to
emulsify the water after agitation and to maintain this emulsion at
temperatures of 20 °C to 25 °C and -5 °C to 0 °C for at least 24 h. Required
test for API SN.
|Air Release / Gas Bubble Separation||
Tests the ability of turbine, hydraulic, and gear oils to separate entrained air. Compressed air is blown through the test oil, which has been heated to a temperature of 25, 50, or 75°C. After the air flow is stopped, the time required for the air entrained to release from the sample.
This test provides a guide for determining the demulsibility characteristic of lubricating oils that are prone to water contamination and may encounter the turbulence of pumping and circulation capable of producing water-in-oil emulsions.
|Demulsibility Extreme Pressure||
Alternative procedure in the D2711 method for lubricating oils that contain extreme pressure (EP) additives.
|ASTM D2711 EP|
|Emulsion Characteristics / Water Separability||
This method provides a measurement guide for determining the water separation characteristics of oils subject to water contamination and turbulence. It is used for specification of new oils and monitoring of in-service oils.
|Engine Oil Filterability (EOFT)||
When an engine is run for a period of time and then stored over a long period of time, the by-products of combustion might be retained in the oil in a liquefied state. Under these circumstances, precipitates can form that impair the filterability of the oil the next time the engine is run. Required test for API SN.
|Engine Oil Water Tolerance (EOWT)||
Determination of the tendency of an oil to form a precipitate that can plug an oil filter. It simulates a problem that may be encountered in a new engine run for a short period of time, followed by a long period of storage with some water in the oil. Required test for API SN.
|Evaporation Loss, Grease||
Determination of the loss in mass by evaporation of lubricating greases and oils for applications where evaporation loss is a factor. Evaporation loss data can be obtained at any temperature in the range from 100 to 150°C (210 to 300°F).
Determines the foaming characteristics of an oil at specified
temperatures and conditions. Both the foaming tendency and stability of the
foam are rated using Sequences I-IV and reported in mL and minutes,
respectively. Required test for API SN. ISO 17025 Accredited.
|ASTM D892 & D6082|
Volatility of the engine oil at 250°C using the non-Woods Metal version
of the Noack. Measures percent oil volatilized during the test. Required test
for API SN.
|Phosphorus Emission Index||
Analysis of the volatilized oil to determine the amount of catalyst-contaminating phosphorus compounds volatilized with the oil. Determines the milligrams of phosphorus volatilized per liter of the engine oil tested. Reported as an index value.
|Simulated Distillation by GC||
Presents the chromatographic 'fingerprint' of the oil. Also reports the percent oil volatilized at 371°C (700°F).
|Sulfur Emission Index||
Analysis of the volatilized oil to determine the amount of sulfur compounds volatilized with the oil. Determines the milligrams of sulfur volatilized per liter of the engine oil tested. Reported as an index value.
|TGA Noack Volatility||
Volatility of the engine oil at 250°C using thermogravimetric analysis. Measures percent oil volatilized during the test. Useful test where only a sample amount of sample is available.
Method covers the determination of isothermal secant and tangent bulk modulus of liquids which are stable and compatible with stainless steel under the conditions of test.
|Cone Penetration, Grease||
Measure the consistency of lubricating greases by the penetration of a cone of specified dimensions, mass, and finish. The penetration is measured in tenths of a millimeter. Worked sixty strokes is a commonly selected option for this test.
Determination using a glass hydrometer in conjunction with a series of calculations, of the density, relative density, or API gravity of crude petroleum, petroleum products, or mixtures of petroleum and nonpetroleum products. Standard temperature is 15oC.
|ASTM D1298 or D4052|
|Density by Pycnometer||
Determination of density using a glass pycnometer. Accurate over a wide temperature range up to 150oC.
Atmospheric distillation of petroleum products using a laboratory batch distillation unit to determine quantitatively the boiling range characteristics of such products as light and middle distillates.
|Dropping Point, Grease||
Temperature which a lubricant grease becomes too hot and loses its plastic consistency.
|Flash & Fire Point by Cleveland Open Cup||
Measures the temperature at which flammable fumes above the fluid will
flash. Used in assessing the overall flammability hazard of an oil. Can
indicate the possible presence of more volatile and flammable materials in
relatively nonvolatile or nonflammable fluids. Reported in °C and °F.
|Flash Point Pensky Martin Closed Cup||
Measures the temperature at which flammable fumes above the fluid will flash. Used in assessing the overall flammability hazard of an oil. Can indicate the possible presence of more volatile and flammable materials in relatively nonvolatile or nonflammable fluids. Reported in °C and °F. Closed cup is meant for lower flammability materials.
|Homogeneity & Miscibility||
Determination if an automotive engine oil is homogeneous and will remain so, and if it is miscible with certain standard reference oils after being submitted to a prescribed cycle of temperature changes.
This test reports cleanliness levels of hydraulic fluids.
Determination of specific heat capacity by differential scanning calorimetry.
Determination of surface tension and interfacial tension of solutions of surface-active agents using a tensiometer.
Measures the trace level amount of sediment that is naphtha-insoluble
and can be separated by centrifuging.
|Vapor Pressure by Isoteniscope||
The determination of the vapor pressure of pure liquids, the vapor
pressure exerted by mixtures in a closed vessel at 40 ± 5 % ullage, and the
initial thermal decomposition temperature of pure and mixed liquids. It is
applicable to liquids that are compatible. Available as a single temperature determination or as a multiple temperature scan.
|Water & Sediment||
This test is used as an indication of water and sediment in middle distillate fuels such as Grade Nos. 1 and 2 fuel oil (Specification D396), Nos. 1-D and 2-D diesel fuel (Specification D975), and Nos. 0-GT, 1-GT, and 2-GT gas turbine fuels.
Acid Number (or Total Acid Number or TAN) is a measure of the amount of acidic substance in the oil. TAN can be used as a measure of lubricant degradation while in service. Reported in mgKOH/g. ISO 17025 Accredited.
|Ash or Total Ash||
The sample contained in a suitable vessel is ignited and allowed to burn until only ash and carbon remain. The carbonaceous residue is reduced to an ash by heating in a muffle furnace at 775°C, cooled and weighed. Reported in weight % ash.
Base Number (or Total Base Number) determines the ability of an oil to
neutralize combustion or engine oil oxidation acids. Reported in mgKOH/g. ISO
|Carbon Distribution by Gas Chromatography||
The determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum
products. The test method is applicable to petroleum products and fractions
having a final boiling point of 538°C (1000°F) or lower at atmospheric pressure
as measured by this test method. ISO 17025 Accredited.
This test determines of the amount of carbon residue formed after
evaporation and pyrolysis of petroleum materials under certain conditions and
is intended to provide some indication of the relative coke forming tendency of
|Chlorine by XRF||
This test measures chlorine content in lubricating oils by wavelength
dispersive XRF. ISO 17025 Accredited.
|Elemental Analysis by ICP||
Analysis of a broad range of elements (Al, Sb, Ba, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe,
Pb, Mg, Mo, Ni, P, Si, Ag, Na, Sn, Ti, Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma
Emission Spectrometer (ICP). The test shows concentration of the foregoing
metal and non-metal-containing components present in the engine oil
formulation. Also provides information on some forms of contamination from
additive processing and formulation. Reported in parts per million. Required
test for API SN. ISO 17025 Accredited.
|ASTM D5185 & D4951|
|FAME, Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Content||
Standard Test Method for determination of Biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Esters) content in diesel fuel oil using Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy.
|Fuel Dilution, Diesel||
The use of gas chromatography to determine the amount of diesel fuel in
used or in-service engine lubricating oil. The diesel fuel diluents is analyzed
at concentrations up to 12 mass %. Requires 250 mL of fresh oil and fuel. ISO
17025 Accredited. Reported in % Fuel.
|Fuel Dilution, Gasoline||
The use of gas chromatography to determine the amount of gasoline in used or in-service engine lubricating oil. ISO 17025 Accredited. Reported in % Fuel.
Nitrogen content by chemiluminescence. Measures the amount of nitrogen
associated with ashless detergents. Reported in percent by weight. ISO 17025
|Nitration, In-Service Fluid||
FTIR analysis for in-service fluids to determine the content of nitration components. ISO 17025 Accredited.
|Phosphate, Anti-Wear, In-Service Fluid||
FTIR analysis for in-service fluids to determine the content of phosphate anti-wear components. ISO 17025 Accredited.
|Soot, In-Service Fluid||
FTIR analysis for in-service fluids to determine the content of soot. ISO 17025 Accredited.
|Sulfate Content, In-Service Fluid||
FTIR analysis for in-service fluids to determine the content of sulfate components. ISO 17025 Accredited.
Determination of the sulfated ash from unused lubricating oils
containing additives and from additive concentrates used in compounding.
Required test for API CK/FA-4. Reported in percent by weight.
Sulfur content by pyro-fluorescence. Measures the total amount of sulfur
in the formulated engine oil. Reported in percent. ISO 17025 Accredited.
|Sulfur by XRF||
Sulfur content by wavelength dispersive XRF. Measures the total amount of sulfur in the formulated engine oil. Reported in percent. Required test for API SN.
|Soot by TGA||
This test uses thermogravimetry to determine the amount of highly volatile matter, medium volatile matter, combustible material, and ash content of compounds. This test can be custom configured by temperature range, time, temperature ramp rate and gas environment.
|Water by Karl Fischer||
Direct determination of water in the range of 10 to 25,000 mg/kg (ppm) entrained water in petroleum products and hydrocarbons using automated instrumentation. ISO 17025 Accredited.
Performance / Wear
|Four Ball Wear||
Procedure for making a preliminary evaluation of the anti-wear properties of fluid lubricants. Sliding conditions intended to predict wear characteristics with steel-on-steel.
|Four Ball Wear, Grease||
Procedure for making a preliminary evaluation of the anti-wear properties
of greases. Sliding conditions intended to predict wear characteristics with steel-on-steel.
|Four Ball Wear Extreme Pressure||
Covers the determination of the load-carrying properties of lubricating fluids. The following two determinations are made: Load-wear index (formerly Mean-Hertz load), Weld point by means of the four-ball extreme-pressure (EP) tester.
|Pin & Vee Wear||
A procedure for making a preliminary evaluation of the wear properties of fluid lubricants by means of the Falex Pin and Vee Block Lubricant Test Machine. The pin & vee test is highly customizable and useful for comparison of lubricants.
|General Electric Diesel Locomotive B82 Specification||
Testing package to simulate diesel locomotive operation including HTHS viscosity before and after shear degradation.
|GF-5 Seal (Elastomer) Compatibility||
Seal compatibility when exposed to oil at an elevated temperature and
stored for two weeks. Measured properties include change in hardness, volume,
tensile strength and elongation. Required test for API SN.
|GM dexos 1 Seal (Elastomer) Compatibility||
Seal compatibility when exposed to oil at an elevated temperature and stored for 1-2 weeks depending on elastomer. Measured properties include change in hardness, volume, tensile strength and elongation.
|GM dexos 2 Seal (Elastomer) Compatibility||
Seal compatibility when exposed to oil at an elevated temperature and
stored for 1-2 weeks depending on elastomer. Measured properties include change
in hardness, volume, tensile strength and elongation.
|Water Washout, Grease||
Estimates the resistance of greases to water washout from ball bearings under conditions of the test, 38oC or at 80oC under prescribed conditions.
|Heavy Duty Diesel Seal (Elastomer) Compatibility||
Seal compatibility when exposed to oil at an elevated temperature and stored for two weeks. Measured properties include change in hardness, volume, tensile strength and elongation. Required test for API CK/FA-4.